EXTRA_WALL

Parallel to projects developed within the multi-disciplinary practice, with EXTRA, TP/A remains active enriching the design professional through participation in seminars, lectures, exhibitions and special events. EXTRA is conceived as the mirror image of TP/A, operating as a think tank within and independently of the production realized within the firm. EXTRA aims at expanding architectural production towards broader issues around culture and enables the practice to interrogate architectural production and research beyond individual commissions and the built artefacts.

Whole Earth Catalog

The Whole Earth Catalog was a cultural touchstone of the 1960s and 1970s. The iconic cover image of the Earth viewed from space made it one of the…

Casa Gilardi _ Luis Barragán _ Mexico City

This summer, Arch. Power had the honour to visit the extraordinary Casa Gilardi designed by the prestigious Mexican architect Luis Barragán in Mexico…

Maria Del Camino

With his project ‘Maria del Camino’, Architect Bruce Tomb furthers his research and personal love affair with all things American. In Bruce’s own…

Gordon Matta-Clark

Gordon Matta-Clark (1943-1978) is one of the most influential artists of the 1970s, whose work has continued to be a noted influence of both…

Bodies in Space _ Nike Fuori Salone _ 2011

With this sub-title, ‘Bodies in Space’, one may indeed expect the lead in picture to segue into a dissertation on ‘New Situationalism’, of a renewed…

Singapore Design Awards _ 2016

Together with Designers Michael Young of Michael Young Ltd, Naoto Fuskasawa of Naoto Fukasawa Design, Priscilla Tsu-Jyen Shunmugam, Hans Tan and…

Carlo Scarpa. L’Arte di Esporre

Il nome di Carlo Scarpa (1906-1978) è intrinsecamente legato alla storia dell'arte, al gusto e alla museografia del XX secolo, tanto che negli anni…

Oluce

Founded in 1945, Oluce is the oldest Italian design company in the illumination sector still in operation today. The design qualities of the lamps…

Design Boost

Design Boost envisions a holistic approach as a condition for sustainable design. To fulfil this vision the belief is in upgrading design competence…

Ettore Sottsass _ Early Years

Ettore Sottsass (14 September 1917 – 31 December 2007) was an Italian architect and designer during the 20th century.

The City, Our Greatest Invention

Ideally our cities become exciting, sexy, and profitable places to live, play, and work – that’s the most important part. When people have no…

MUJI – Laboratory for Living – Enjoy ! ( ) Energy

With admirable resolve and a sincere desire to change the planet for the better, from the onset of their existence the Japanese company Muji has…

Speed and Politics

With this book Paul Virilio inaugurated the new science whose object of study is the "dromocratic" revolution. First to use the concept of speed as a…

Michael Heizer

As long as you’re going to make a sculpture, why not make one that competes with a 747, or the Empire State Building, or the Golden Gate Bridge?…

Architecture Days _ Florence

In a lecture entitled 'Halfway to Infinity' Tim Power presents the work of TP/A, passing though the connections of scale between Design,…

Singapore Design Week

On March 14th, 2014, Tim Power spoke on Design, Interiors, Architecture, and Territory. Tim was invited by Singaplural, the official event organizer,…

Ecotopia

Ecotopia: The Notebooks and Reports of William Weston is a utopian novel by Ernest Callenbach, published in 1975. The society described in the book…

Understanding Design

An Article and Interview with Tim Power in Bravacasa Indonesia focusing on the unique approach of TP/A, in a discussion covering Design, Interiors,…

Liquid Modernity

In this book, Bauman examines how we have moved away from a 'heavy' and 'solid', hardware-focused modernity to a 'light' and 'liquid', software-based…

The Green New Deal: Shaping a Public Imagination

When climate change is the focus of both fiction and nonfiction, dystopia tends to rule. A notable exception is the prize-winning work of Kim Stanley…

Italy: The New Domestic Landscape

Italy, The New Domestic Landscape  is the show that changed the world of Design, and this is the book that brought that change to the world. Italy,…

Compasses Turns Ten

Arch. Tim Power was invited as a special guest for an event organised by Compasses during Milano Design Week 2018.

TPA_2015_SOAR

Seasonal Greetings from TP/A.

Street Food

Traditional cultures understood the fragile nature of our Earth without technology, but modern culture was able to do so only with distance, scale…

Olafur Eliasson

Blue and Orange and Grey to Purple movie Watercolour and pencil on paper 51,4 x 61 cm Photographer: Jean Vong

Palazzo Abatellis Palermo

This book, published for the occasion of Manifesta 12 and the collateral event 'The Hidden City', exposes the forgotten stories, events and details…

The Death and Life of Great American Cities

The game changing and vital text on what makes a city work, focusing on the street and public space, is a must read. A direct and fundamentally…

L’Industria del Design tra Digitale e Internazionalizzazione

On 26 June 2018, Tim Power was invited to attend a conference titled "L'industria del design tra digitale e internazionalizzazione".

The Superstudio Tapes

Tim Power, director of TP/A, worked with Superstudio  for 2 years on the late 1980's. His experience with Superstudio ( 1986-1987 ) and Ettore…

The Entreprenurial State

Debunking the myth of a laggard State at odds with a dynamic private sector, this book reveals in case study after case study that in fact the…

A Pattern Language

A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction is a 1977 book on architecture, urban design, and community livability. It was authored by…

David Report

Tim Power has been an active blogger at the David Report since it’s inception in 2006. David Report is an influential blog and online magazine that…

Progettare l’Eccellenza (w/ R. Koolhaas)

Last night Rem Koolhaas, founder of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, opened the series of events scheduled for the Workshop on ‘Management…

Compasses Turns Ten

Arch. Tim Power was invited as a special guest for an event organised by Compasses during Milano Design Week 2018.

Wilderness Downtown

Our research often leads us to question place, continuity and change … This little video does so as well.

POWER _ Infrastructure in America

POWER challenges participants to think about how infrastructure relates to life across a series of intersecting concerns, including democratic…

Tim Power lectures at ENSCI _ Les Ateliers

On January 20th, 2011 Tim Power lectured to a Course of Masters students at the renowned French industrial Design School ‘ENSCI – Les Ateliers’ in…

5th International Interior Architecture Symposium

In a lecture entitled 'Halfway to Infinity', Tim Power presents the work of TP/A, passing thought the connections of scale between Design,…

California Plants

California Plants is an essential resource for outdoor enthusiasts. This definitive guide features more than 500 species, along with detailed…

Trick Mirror

In her new book of essays, Trick Mirror: Reflections on Self-Delusion, Tolentino writes about how social media shapes identity, public discourse and…

This Changes Everything

Forget everything you think you know about global warming. It’s not about carbon – it’s about capitalism. The good news is that we can seize this…

Tim Power at UDesign Conference UDEM – Monterrey, Mexico

Tim Power presented recent Tim Power Architects studio work and research in a multimedia presentation entitled ‘From the Spoon to the City … to the…

Amate l’Architettura

Era il 1957 quando questa “piccola architettura da tasca”, scritta e plasmata da Gio Ponti in ogni suo dettaglio iconografico e tipografico, venne…

#instagram update from Compasses World

American architect and designer, he works between California and Milan. His multidisciplinary approach has lead him to range from landscape urbanism,…

The Restoration Economy

The Restoration Economy describes a huge, fast-growing new growth frontier for entrepreneurs, investors, & organizational leaders, not to mention…

The Hidden Life of Trees

Beyond the life sustaining qualities that trees and plants supply the planet via the cyclical process of photosynthesis, trees have a secret life of…

Troublemakers

Troublemakers unearths the history of land art in the tumultuous late 1960s and early 1970s. The film features a cadre of renegade New York artists…

Singapore Design Awards _ 2019

Together with Designers Janine Wunder, Keiji Takeuchi, Brandon Gien, Hans Tan and other illustrious member of the international design community, Tim…

The Society of the Spectacle

Guy Debord’s (1931–1994) best-known work, The Society of the Spectacle (1967), is a polemical and prescient indictment of our image-saturated…

Beware of Google’s (Urban) Intentions

In partnering with local governments to create infrastructure, Alphabet says it is only trying to help. Local governments shouldn’t believe it.

Avalance

Avalanche was a New York–based art magazine founded and edited by Willoughby Sharp and Liza Béar from 1970 to 1976. The magazine was unique in its…

Conversazione con Tim Power

This Conversation between Tim Power and Ivana Riggi, conducted in Italian on the 16th of April 2011, discusses various aspects of the practice of…

Design Boost _ Interview with Tim Power

… Over the span of the past half-decade or so, Tim Power Architects has consciously enlarged the focus of their research and production from…

This is Not a Drill

Now or never, we need to be radical. We need to rise up. And we need to rebel.

TP/A_2012

Lightly, Carefully, Gracefully...2012

Center for Land Use Interpretation

The mission statement of the CLUI is to "increase and diffuse knowledge about how the nation's lands are apportioned, utilized, and perceived."[3]…

Casa Azul in Mexico City

Other than Casa Gilardi, Arch. Power had also visited La Casa Azul (The Blue House), which was the house of the famous Mexican artists Diego Rivera…

Tim Power and the Chair That Doesn’t Exist

For the launch of his new website TP/A, the American architect, based in Milan, Tim Power introduces Hole.

K

Titled succinctly with the capital letter “K,” this exhibition is to be understood as a story, not unlike a parable, about the “darkest concerns of…

Critical Path

Critical Path is a book written by US author and inventor R. Buckminster Fuller with the assistance of Kiyoshi Kuromiya. First published in 1981, it…

Whatever Happened to Analogue Architecture

Books about architecture used to be rather straightforward and were not that numerous. Historical writing had few, if any illustrations and…

Alamak!

Alamak! in the Triennale

Serial / Portable Classic

Portable Classic. Ancient Greece to Modern Europe (Venice, May 9–September 13) is an exhibition curated by Salvatore Settis and designed by OMA for…

Transient Places, Interstitial Space – an Interview with Moby

A new Book by Moby, know best as a musician, exposes his sensibility to territory and the transient relationships between us and the places we…

Robert Irwin

Robert W. Irwin (born September 12, 1928) is an American installation artist who has explored perception and the conditional in art, often through…

Being Bejing

The planetary trajectory of increased urbanization in the third millennium is transforming the ways in which the we inhabit our territory, our…

All Things Come To Those Who Wait _ 2016

All Things Come To Those Who Wait 1(dated) A patient seeker will be satisfied in due time; patience is a virtue. Usage notes •This version of the…

The Hidden City

The Hidden City is a project drawing from the narrative tradition of Palermo and focusing on one of the singular aspects of Manifesta 12, the…

CSU_Florence Architecture Symposium

Invited guest lecturer Tim Power presented the works of TP/A in the Symposium ’30 years of Teaching and Research in International Architecture’ at…

Sol Lewitt _ Between the Lines _ La Fondazione Carriero in Milano

One decade after the death of Sol LeWitt (Hartford, 1928 – New York, 2007), Between the Lines aims to offer a new perspective on the American…

George Condo Interview : The Way I Think

In this video, recorded in his New York-studio, the iconic artist shares his life-long love of drawing and thoughts on his artistic expression, which…

WorkPlace 3.0

The WorkPlace Environment, where the majority of adults pass more than half of our wakening lives, is undergoing a new wave of notable…

No More Play

The work of TP/A … our work … concurrent to our research and design, explores the ability of Architecture, Objects, Services, Landscape Design, etc.…

Hands On

A conversation with Jerszy Seymour, Stephen Burks and Yoichi Nakamuta

Donald Judd

Donald Clarence Judd (June 3, 1928 – February 12, 1994) was an American artist associated with minimalism (a term he nonetheless stridently…

Wolfgang Laib

Since the mid-1970s, Laib (German, b. 1950) has been producing sculptures and installations marked by a serene presence and a reductive beauty. These…

TPA _ 2013

We will be known forever by the tracks we leave...2013

Walter De Maria

Walter De Maria’s six-decade career made lasting and profound contributions to contemporary art. A vanguard force within four major twentieth-century…

Shaker Furniture Rail

The Shakers' dedication to hard work and perfection has resulted in a unique range of architecture, furniture and handicraft styles. They designed…

The Medium is the Message

The Medium is the Massage is a unique study of human communication in the twentieth century, published in Penguin Modern Classics Marshall McLuhan is…

EXTRA_COURSE

EXTRA COURSE is an area with an overview of research led by Tim Power conducted within his Academic design studios and seminar series.  His Academic research includes ongoing or past seminars and design studios at the Politecnico of Milan, IED, and Domus Academy. Tim Power is currently leading undergraduate thesis studios at NABA.
Of primary concern to the research of Extra is analysing Individual, Social and Environmental Responsibility in the World of Design.

Slow Kitchen Block

Istituto Europeo di Design, 2007

The seminar ‘Slow Kitchen Block’ was a research and design studio aimed at rethinking the design of the contemporary kitchen and its equipment.
The course was guided by Tim Power, with the participation of the Slow Food Studies and Research Center and Boffi s.p.a.
In the course, students analysed the methods of production and consumption of indigenous and traditional cuisine, the benefits of diversified dishes, and Slowness as a systematic approach to food. The “Slow” philosophy proposes an attitude of respect, which starts from the awareness of the fundamental importance of preserving the bio-diversity of the plant and animal world.
In the course, groups of students designed complete experimental kitchen environments, recreating circular micro eco-systems specifically inherent to the “Slow” kitchen. The students were asked to question technological dependency in the kitchens processes, and to balance this dependency with the nutritional model of the past. Focus was placed on designing the elements and specific tools necessary for the preparation, transformation, conservation and consumption of food in an honest, elegant, and fair manner. The goal is to design and produce a contemporary, sophisticated and refined product, complete in its systemic awareness, responsible with regards to energy consumption, and respectful of the models of clean industry and the circular economy.

Being Bejing/

Eight Strategies for a New Millennium

Following the industrial revolution, zoned planning in urban centres was introduced, in part to cure the ills of industry, following guidelines which separated our lives into discrete compartments of work, home, and entertainment.
This reality has deeply defined our contemporary perception of space, shifted our sense of individuality, and society, and altered both our impact and understanding of the environment.
This transformation, further increased in the age of globalisation, has also increased the potential and relevance of design and new approaches to respond to these transformations.

This workshop, entitled ‘Being Beijing – Eight Strategies for a New Millennium’  organised by IED and the Tsinghua University on their campus in Beijing, arises from these reflections.

Aimed at investigating a new model of the Hybrid City,  Eight Strategies for a New Millennium focused on the relationships and dynamics  between the environments where we live, where we work, and where we consume goods and services in the contemporary city. Led by Professor Tim Power, the course investigated strategies that aim to question, integrate and curate new spatial relationships between our homes, our workplaces, cities and the natural environment.

Welcome In!

Industrial Design for Hospital Cities
Politecnico di Milano

The students of the thesis level design studio investigated renewed relationships between the nomadic citizens of the contemporary global society and the increasingly complex territories within which we find ourselves in.
Today’s nomad moves and interacts within an ever increasing number of “host cities”. A new model and methodology of design for this scenario, and in particular, the role of urban design and it’s application and appreciation of this new inter-connected urban system, can lead to new interpretations of the concept of physical presence in interconnected cities.
The objective of the design studio was to research and question the qualities of physical objects, their technological and material innovation, but primarily to understand our behaviour and relationships within urban environments. The studio was based on the belief that successful design for hospital cities and territorial space will derive from new strategic design tools – proposed at the start of the course by the professor – and from the connection of relevant insights, for example: the understanding and interpretation of the characters of place, the value of the proxemic relational space, knowledge of the new scenarios created by our ubiquitous nature, the logic of social evolution, the attention of material and procedural research for production in the respect for the environment, identification and logic of identity, etc.

100 Virtuous Cities

Politecnico di Milano

A famous line of the poem The Swan by Baudelaire says: “The form of the city changes more rapidly than the mortal soul”. This is exactly what is happening under our eyes over the last decades.

In the thesis level design studio 100 Virtuous Cities, the students will carry out research, programming and design of urban and territorial transformations in the contemporary city.
The urban planning discipline, which has was fully responsible for urban transformations in the years previous the recent  period, is being substituted evermore by urban design, which, due to its rapidity in reaction,  can be effective in adapting to modern (public or private) needs  of territorial development.

The  studio intends to promote research and experimental actions in the following thematic areas: mobility, hospitality spaces, retail, new domestic spaces; urban exhibitions and  event design. These dynamic spaces will be analysed, and design strategies will be proposed and  eventually, evaluated, on how they interact and connect within the cities and territories they find themselves.
Technology, Youth Culture, and Ecology serve as fields of reference for the design studio.

New Domestic Seascapes

Istituto Europeo di Design, Venice Campus

The design seminar ‘New Domestic Seascapes’ is a masters level design studio aimed at rethinking and redesigning the sailing and power yacht. By employing systemic strategies, the students were asked to re-envision the yacht and to evaluate its current design trajectory, how the design and manufacturing processes can optimise technology, increase and advance performance,  and promote responsible practices regarding production processes and materials.

The students investigated the relationship between efficiency, weight, form and space in what many consider to be one the most sophisticated of all design challenges: re-envisioning the modern sailing yacht.

The course was guided by Tim Power of Studio Power and  Sebastiano Rech Morassutti of Trimaran s.r.l., with the participation of the Azimuth Yachts

Brand Diversity

Domus Academy

The design studio, Brand Diversity: Evolution, Variety and Variability of a Global Brand, for the Domus Academy Master program with the  participation of the French Fashion brand Louis Vuitton, focused on analysis and revisiting the brands evolutionary process.
The students were asked to analyse relationships and similarities between the natural world ( Bio-Diversity ) and the contemporary economic system of commerce and branding ( Brand-Diversity ).
In a globalised systems of Large brand dominance, youth culture is rediscovering the value of smaller brands, in part, due to their authentic approach and street level honestly.
We studied this phenomenon critically and looked closely at the genetic structure which defines the Louis Vuitton Brand. In a world where the interconnected principles: good, clean and fair, co-exist with: seduction, desire and the influencer, we asked the questions “what is the role of a brand in the contemporary landscape?”  and  “can a big brand respond to environmental and social concerns”
As audiences become increasingly frustrated and skeptical of advertising claims, what is the role of ‘Honesty’, ‘Attitude’ and ‘Value’ in the marketplace (yes, even in the luxury marketplace)? How and why can brands with traditional techniques and messages thrive in a modern world, a world sensible to modern problems and contemporary values?

Rethinking Hospitality

Istituto Europeo di Design 

The course Rethinking Hospitality presented an overview of the extensive and complex field of Interior Design within the hospitality industry, with each student developing a strategic project focused on  new strategies of rethinking Hotel Design.

Students conducted in depth analysis of contemporary hotel typologies, recent hotel design trends and historical information and archives regarding typology, operations, atmospheres, materials, furniture, and lighting.
The historical evolutions that the course investigated were both social and environmental.
Social changes , driven by the increases in travel by nomadic citizens, will focus on the desire of authentic experiences and local identity.
Environmental issues, of increased importance to offset the carbon footprint of the global traveller, sensitivity to the use of natural resources  were considered during all design decisions in relation to the impact of the construction industry.
Authenticity and cultural identity were considered  with regards to building techniques and materials.
Today’s guest is demanding change: hotels must update, renovate or invent new and appropriate ideas to keep up with requirements of evolving lifestyles and environmental responsibilities.

Rethinking Domesticity

NABA

The planetary trajectory growth towards urbanisation in the third millennium is transforming the ways in which the we inhabit our territory, our buildings and our homes: The abandonment of small towns, ‘the countryside’, and rural areas by young people, families and immigrants looking for a ‘better life’ and improved living conditions in large urban environments has been a major social trend of our era. Such changes increase the potential and relevance of the a new design approach to respond to these transformations.
Given this paradigm, the need for re-thinking our relationship with our surroundings and the territories we inhabit is fundamental.
The complex economic and social transformation which has struck industrialised and transforming countries at the end of the second millennium lays ground for the current need to organize, convert, develop, design and administrate urban territory with positive and experimental approaches, rooted in timeless patterns.
The thesis level design studio took these observations as the starting point, and aims to produce results which replace nature at the center of the world, exploring methods of creating a built environment for human environments in symbiosis with the natural one, with the understanding that we are part of the web and flow of a complex and delicate eco-system.

Rethinking Domesticity

NABA

The planetary trajectory growth towards urbanisation in the third millennium is transforming the ways in which the we inhabit our territory, our buildings and our homes: The abandonment of small towns, ‘the countryside’, and rural areas by young people, families and immigrants looking for a ‘better life’, and improved living conditions in large urban environments has been a major social trend of our era and forces us to consider rural and urban areas of the globes industrialised and transforming countries. Such needs increase the potential and relevance of the a new design approach to respond to these transformations.
Given this paradigm, the need for re-thinking domesticity is top priority.
Our contemporary dynamic condition of urban spaces and places calls the need to identify and propose new ways of living, of inhabiting our homes and our domestic environment.
Changes in technology create new ways of working and shopping, and these changes offer the need to re-evaluate the domestic environment, how it is built, how it will be used, and how it will effect the environment and society at large.
The thesis level design studio took this as the starting point, and aims to produce results which explore urbanity and rurality, and to propose balancing strategies which adapt to and increase the qualities of both.

Rethinking Domesticity

NABA

Globalisation in the third millennium is transforming the ways in which the we inhabit our territory, our buildings and our homes: Technology has revolutionised how we build and inhabit ours cities, it regulates our movement and travel, indicating nomadism as one of the major transformative forces of our era.
We are permanent tourists, travelling endlessly to discover ( and with discovery, contaminate ) every corner of the globe. We move with ease, but with consequence.
Our system could best be described as ‘The Age of infinite Possibility’, and inherent to this range of infinite possibilities is the consequence of ‘Unprecedented Risk’.
Such changes increase the potential and relevance of the a new design approach to respond to these transformations.
Given this paradigm, the need for re-thinking our relationship with how we move through our surroundings and the territories we inhabit is fundamental.
The thesis level design studio took these considerations as the starting point, and aimed to produce results which explored differences between cultures, identity, positive and negative aspects of travel upon our increasing globalised environment and introduced strategies on how to balance a ‘universal language’ with autochthonous and authentic local ones.

Rethinking Domesticity

Istituto Europeo di Design 

Our contemporary dynamic condition of urban spaces and places calls the need to identify and propose new ways of inhabiting our domestic environments, workplaces and commercial spaces.
The design studio will consider how these spaces can overlap, and how in this process of hybridization, they can be shared.
Domestic environments constitute the majority of the built space in both rural urban environments, and their morphological dynamics and relationships to the other primary functions of a city is key. Work Environments are where we spend most of our ‘collective time’ during waking hours, and with this, the trend in the contemporary office of working is focused on teamwork and collective space.
Commercial Space is where the greatest change in collective and public space is currently transforming the urban environments.
The relationships between these Private and Public space and how they can be transformed into Shared Spaces will define the cities of tomorrow.
The course program, entitled ‘SharedTerritories’ arises from these reflections.
Within the course, each student, with the guidance of the tutor, will establish a specific project program, which entails determining a brief, defining domestic typologies, locating a site, and prioritising strategic, conceptual and functional requirements.

Rethinking Domesticity

NABA

The decay of continuity caused by abrupt dynamic conditions in contemporary urban spaces calls for the need to identify and propose new ways of inhabiting our domestic environments, workplaces and commercial spaces.
The design studio Hybrid Environments considered how these spaces can overlap, and how in this process of hybridization, they can be shared.
The design studio focused on a a case study analysis of how live, how we work, and how we consume goods and services in contemporary urban environments and investigated possible combinatory strategies for how to improve these relationships and environments.
The course program arose from these reflections.
Within the course, each student, with the guidance of the tutor, will analysed objects, spaces, constructs and territories and the relationships between nature, city, building. Further analysis and research of historic typologies focused on workplace, public space and the domestic environment.
The thesis projects proposed new typologies on how these functions and integrate and overlap, with the focus on which of our behaviours can share resources, and which require privacy and personal contemplation.

Rethinking Domesticity

NABA

Todays youth are unable and unwilling to continue thinking of ‘economic growth’ as the only acceptable model. While they appreciate that the well-being generated by modern mechanisms such as industrialisation and capitalism, they are also equally aware that the downside of these models has caused the disintegration of the ‘social contracts’ that held previous generations together, as well as wreaking environmental havoc that threatens the fragile planetary ecosystems and perhaps, even the basis of life itself.
Although we have become acutely aware of the damage we are inflicting on our planet, ecological destruction is in escalation rather than decreasing. In our Antropecene era, the mechanisms which we have put into place are evidently so powerful that we are unable, or unwilling, to stop them. The course program, entitled ‘New Responsibility’ arises from these reflections.
Within the course, each student, with the guidance of the tutor, analysed objects, spaces, constructs and territories and the relationships between nature, city, building. The course intended to promote research and experimental: the student was asked to investigate possible futures, without certainties, within the realm of error. The final thesis of each student proposed, in either incremental steps or radical overtures, projects which took these observations as the starting point.